Iron supplementation has become a preferred alternative for treating iron deficiency diseases. However, traditional iron agents used to treat anemia have low efficiency. In this study, anemia of inflammation (AI) and sports anemia were established in rats, and two types of iron liposomes, heme liposomes (HEME-LIP) and ferric citrate liposomes (FAC-LIP) were prepared by the rotary-evaporated film-ultrasonication method. Both types of iron liposomes were used to treat sports anemia and AI rats by intragastric administration, the control groups were administered with the same amounts of FAC, heme iron or blank liposomes. Then the levels of serum iron and liver iron were tested to determine if iron liposomes has higher efficiency in relieving anemia; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also detected to determine the side effect of iron supplementation. Results showed that serum iron levels and liver iron contents were significantly increased and reached much higher levels in the anemia rats treated with FAC-LIP and HEME-LIP, compared to those of ferric citrate (FAC) and heme treatment groups. Furthermore, increase of SOD and decrease of MDA levels were also observed after supplementing iron liposomes. These results indicate that iron liposomes have great efficiency on relieving the iron deficiency status over that of unencapsulated iron agents. Therefore, iron liposomes might be an effective iron supplement to fortify food in treating iron deficiency diseases with minimal side effects.