Ultrashort microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) has attracted considerable interest as a promising imaging modality due to its high resolution and low radiation dose (Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 218101). Previous studies show that TAI has great potential for high contrast breast tumor detection, nevertheless the required microwave energy density and radiation field of view (FOV) can’t meet the clinical demand. In this paper, a ultrashort microwave pulse (USMP) pumped TAI system was employed to reduce the demand microwave energy density for imaging, and the FOV was large enough to cover whole breast simultaneously. The experimental results demonstrate that the new USMP-TAI system can be used for high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) localization of deep breast tumors with low microwave radiation dose over the whole breast.